(derivation doubtful). Conlferw. Fin. Tall, pyramidal trees: ivs. lanceoiate or oblanceolate, entire, sessile, persistent for many years; on young plants and lower sterile branches/flattened, usually deep green and lustrous above and silvery white below from the pres ence of many rows of stomata, rounded and variously notched at the apex, appearing 2-ranked by a twist at their base; on upper fertile branches crowded, more or less erect, often incurved or faicnte, thickened or quad rangular, obtuse or acute: fls. axillary, appearing in early spring from buds formed the previous summer on branchlets of the year, surrounded by involucres of the enlarged scales of the flower-buds; staminate fls. pen dent on branches above the middle of the tree; pistil late fis. globular, ovoid or oblong, erect on the topmost branches: fr. an erect, ovoid or oblong cylindrical cone, its scales longer or shorter than their bracts, separating at maturity from the stout, persistent axis. Northern and mountainous regions of the northern hemisphere, often gregarious. Twenty-three species are distinguished; greatest segregation on the Cascade Mountains of Ore Thorny, giabrous: lvs. obo fls. dimcious, gun, in the countries adjacent to the Mediterranean, and in Japan. All the species produce soft, perishable wood, sometimes manufactured into lumber, and balsamic exu dations contained in the prominent resin vesicles in the bark characteristic of the genus. Handsome in cultiva tion, but usually of short-lived beauty. Moist, well drained soil. Prop. by sowing and by grafts. Seeds are usually kept dry over winter and planted in frames or seed-beds in spring. Young plants usually need shade. Most species can be grafted with comparative ease; A. Piece and A. balsamea are commonly used for stocks. Many species which have been referred to Abies are now included in Picea. S. S. 12. Heinrich Mayr, Monographie der Abietineen des Japanischen Reiches. Gn. 11, pp. 280, 281. See Conifers. The following species, in the American trade, are here described, the synonyms being in italics: amabiiis, Nos. 4,8; Ap0liinis,12; balsamea,6; brat-hyphylla,li; Ceph aiouica, i2; Ciiicica,3; concoior, 9; Fraseri,7; Gordom' one, 8; grandis, 8; homolepis, ll; Hudsonia, 6; Lorri aml, 9; magnitii-.a,15; nephrolepia, 10; nobiiis, 14; Nord manniana, 2; Parsonsiana, 9; pectinata, 1; Picea, 1; Pichfu, 5; Pinsapo, 13; Shastensis, 15 ; Sibirica, 5; Veitchii, 10. See supplementary list, p. 3, for other cultivated species. A. Enables. Leaves flat, grooved on the upper surface, only occasionally slomatiferous above on upper fertile branches.B. Leaf blunt. C. Foliage essentially green,—lhe leaves green above and whilish only beneath. D. Cones usually upwards of H14. long. 1. Picsa,Liudl.(A.pectindla, DC.). SILVER Fm. Fig. 2.0. Tree 100-200 ft. : trunkti-8 ft. in diam.: lvs. flat, dis tichously spreading, dark green and lustrous above, sil very white beiow: cones slender. cylindrical, light green to dark purple, 5-6 in. long; bracts slightly longer than their scales. Mountains of central and southern Europe, often gregarious. — Wood esteemed and much used; yields Strasburg turpentine. Dwarf forms, with erect and pcndulous and with much abbreviated branches, are common in gardens.