(the ancient Latin name). Cupuliferm, sub family Betuldcam. ALDER. Trees or shrubs: lvs. alter nate, shortly petioled, deciduous: fls. apetalous, mome cious in catkins, staminate ones elongated and pendu lous, pistillate ones erect, short, developing into an ovoid, ligneous cone with persistent scales: fr. a small nutlet. Twenty species in the northern hemi sphere, in America south to Peru. Hardy ornamental trees and shrubs, suitable for planting on damp soil, where they grow very rapidly, but A. cordata, firma, Japonica, and also A. tinctoria prefer somewhat drier soil. The profuse male catkins are pleasing in early spring. The wood is valuable for its durability in water. Usually prop. by seeds gathered in the fall and well dried: sown in spring with but slight covering, and kept moist and shady, they germinate soon ; a slight covering with moss, taken 06 when the seedlings appear, will be useful. At the end of the same year or the fol lowing springthe seedlings are transplanted, usually into rows 1-2 It. apart and 6 in. from each other. After two years they can be planted where they are to stand. The shrubby species, also A.glutinosa, grow from hardwood cuttings placed in moist and sandy soil, also from layers, and A. incana from suckers. Rarer kinds are grafted on common potted stock in early spring in the propa gating house; grafting out-of-doors is rarely successful. Index: aurea, No. 10; cordata, 5; rordifolia, 5; denticu lata, 10; flrma, Sieb. & Zucc., 2 and 4: glnuca, 6; gluti nosa, 10; imperialis, 10; incana, 6; incisa, 10; Japonica, 4; laciniata, 6 and 10; maritima, 3; multinervis. 2 : ob longatu, 3 and 10; Oregano, 8 ; pyrilolia, 5 ; rubra, 8 ; rubrinerva, 10; rugosa, 9; sen-ulata,9; Sibirica, 1; tilincea, 5 ; tiliwfolia, 5 ; tinctoria, 7 ; viridis, 1.