(a star). Oompdsita. Aswan. Sraswoar. MXOHELMAS DAISY. A large temperate-zone genus of attractive but botanically-confused herbs, particularly abundant in N. Amer. The genus is characterized by numerous ilattish rays (white, blue, red, or purple), slender style appendages, compressed several nerved akenes, and an involucre with unequal bracts in few or sev eral rows, the pappns simple, soft, and abundant (Fig. 161). Leafy stemmed, mostly blooming in the autumn. Some of the species are annual, but those in cult. are per ennial (or rarely biennial). All are easy of cultivation in ordinary soil and exposures, and are among the host plants for the hardy border or for naturalizing in the freer parts of the grounds. They grow reanlilily from seeds, but aref gagi era y prop. y ivision o t e _ _ clumps. Calimeris and Linosyris :::,B:;,',,b,'i_c:{;-)1l::_' are kept distinct in this book. Aster. A. Old World Asters, some of them old garden plants, and somewhat modified by cull. B. Stems simple and scape-like, bearing a single /1. alpinus, Linn. Lvs. entire and spatulate, forming a cluster on the ground,those on the stem small and linear : at. 3-10 in., bearing a large viol!t~ra_ved, hand some head. B.M. 199.—1n its wild state, the plant also occurs in the Rocky Mts. Valuable alpine or rockwork plant, with fls. varying to pink and white. Var. specio aus, Hort., is taller and stronger, with beads 3-4 in. across. Var. supérbus, Hort. (Gn. 54: 1193), is a large and showy form. Himalaicus, C. B. Clarke (A. Himalayéraais, Hort.). Similar to A. alpinus, but dwarfer: rays lilac-blue, slightly recurved at the tip: sts. 4-12 in., slightly vil loua : lvs.oblong or elliptic, nearly entire. Himalayas, 13,000—15,000 ft.—Little known in America. diplostephioldes, Benth. Two to 3 ft.,sot't-pubescent or hairy, the st. simple and )/ --" 7 \ solitary: lvs. obovate or _ K I ._\\'&fg§/ oblanceoiate, entire but 1,,‘ ciliatewolitaryheadlarge, -1] I inclined, 2-3 in. across, "U1 9 1’ 1', ./ blue or pale purple, very ‘ ’-"wt ilk? showy. Himalayas. B.M 6718. J.H. III. 33: 262.—In the Amer. trade has been mis spelled A. Deptostaphides. Bu. Stems usually branched and several- (0 many-fld. Améllus, Linn. St. simple or nearly so, few-fld. or sometimes only 1-fld.: lvs. oblong-lanceolate, acute, somewhat serrate, more or less 3-nerved, roughish pubescent : involucre scales oblong, obtuse or nearly so, spreading, in 4-5 rows; heads large. purple. Eu. and Asia. Gn.35:689.—Variable, and several well-marked garden forms. Var. Bessarabicns, DC. (A. Bessardbicus, Bernl1.). Lvs. oblong and attenuated at base: plant taller and larger-fld., deep purple. Gn. 35, p. 173.—Sh0\ry and de sirable. Var. Oassabicus, Hort. (A. Cassiardbicus, Maundi). Fls. larger than in the type, the rays regular and de flexed, the disk bright golden and broad. Bibiricus, Linn. A foot or less high, somewhat pu bescent, each branch terminating in a single head : lvs. < ~ /» \(./ ii 163. Aster Nova:-Angllae. One of the best and most showy of native Asters. fia?:'.9'); macrophyllus, Linn. (G.F. 4: 89); oblong-spatulate to broad~lanceolate, serrate : heads violet or lilac. Arctic Eu. and Arner., and Rocky Mts.— Excellent rockwork plant. Loris, Linn. About 2-3 ft., slender-branched : lvs. linear, or lance-linear : heads large and blue, with long, distinct, handsome rays. S. Eu. Ga. 37: 744. trinérvius, Roxbg. About 3 ft., stout, corvmbose at summit: lvs. lance-ovate and strongly toothed : heads large, blue or purple (a pale var. ) , with narrow, spread ing rays. Himalayas. R.H. 1892:396.—Hardy, hand some, variable. Tataricus, Linn. f. St. erect and striate, hispid, corymbose at the summit, often 7 ft. high : lvs. large (the radical 2 ft. long), lanceolate or oval lanceolate, attenuate at base, entire: involucre scales purplish at tip ; heads blue or purple, late. Siberia. G.F. 4: 197. Excellent for the hardy border, particularly for its very late blooming. AA. NATIVE Asrans. These plants are one of the charms ofthe Amer. autumn, and are amongst the best of all hardy border plants. They gener ally improve greatly in habit when transferred to cultivated grounds. Any of these wild Asters are likely to come into cultivation at any time. The number of kinds is large. The student will find them all described in Gray's Synoptical Flora of North America, 1, pt. 2. Those 0! the northeastern states and adjacent Canada will be found in Britten and Brown’s Illustr. Flora of the U. S., and G1-ay’s Man . Those of the S. are described in Chapman's Flora of the S. states. The following list. comprises those known to be in cult. Of these, only A. 1Vo1'a*-Anglice is well known in domestication. The species are much con fused : . 1;/j,_ A. acumindlus, Michx.; amelhgjslinus, Nutt. (G.l". 5:378): Andersoni, Gray ; Bfgelovii, Gray(B.M. 6430); canéscens, Pursh; Caroli m'dnus,Walt. ; Chamisxonix, Gray; Chdpmani, Torr. & Gray; 1-rnnnmtdtua, Gray; c6ncol0r,Linn.; ronspicuous, Lindl.; rordifdlius, Linn. (Fig. 162) ; co- mbosus, Ait.; Cfmickii,Gray; diflusus, Ait., and var. horizoniztlis;D0!iglasii,Lindl. ; Dninnmondii, Lindl.; dmnbsus, Linn.; ericoldes, Linn.; fulcdtus, Lindl.; I-'e'ndler|', Gray; folillceus, Lindl.; 1":-émonli, Gray; grandi flbrus, Linn.; Hdllii, Gray; Hir ueyi, Gray (G.l". 2:473); 1'nIegr|‘ Iblius, Nutt.; llvvis, Linn.; linarii fcllius, Linn.; Lindlvydnus, Torr. Mén-ziesii, Lindl.; multiflbrus, Ait.; nemordlis, Ait.; Nrivvz-Anglia», Linn. (Fig. 163. A.F'. 9:283), and vnr. rbseus; Nbvi-Bélgii,Linn.; oblrmgifblius, Nutt.; panic uldtus, Lam.; pdfens, Ait., and var. Meéhaozii; poly phgjllus, Willd.; Pbrleri, Gray ; pren-anihoides, 1\iuhl.; plnrmicoides, Torr. & Gray (G.1'-‘. 3:153); pulchéllmv, Eaton ; puniceus, Linn. (Fig. 164), and var. ltrvicafilis and var. lucidulus; radullnus, Gray; sngitifolius, Willd.; mlicifblius, Ait.; sertceus, Vent. (G.F.5:473)¥ Shértii, Hook.(G.F. 4: 473); spectdbilis,Ait.(l\In. 5: 41); .-mrculbsus, Michx. (G.F. 5:521); ta-nacetilblius. HBK.; Tra-descdnti, Linn.; turbinéllus, Lindl. (G.F. 6:17); unduldtus, Linn. (G.W.F. 4); versicolor, Willd. In the following list, those marked " are offered by Amer. dealers : ‘A. coccinma Nevr|dé1|uis==i—~'A. I)¢i!achi=i—'A.iu) bridus ndmu=i "Rosy color. only 6 in. high."—_’A. lanc1!b iius Cala'I61-m'.c1u— i—'A. liladnus Nevade'nsu= i—'A. Meéhani. a well marked fonn of A. patens. found by Joseph Meehau at Antietam.—"'A. Nb: ¢z-ca».rnleue=- Z—'A. pur amiddlis== i—A. Reévesii, Hort., is A. ericoides. var. Reevesii, Gray. a "rigid form. comparatively stout. glnbrous. except that the lvs. are often hispidulous-ciliate toward the base, the heads and rays as large and the latter about as numerous as in A. polyphyllus." .\'. Amer.—"A. rotundiloliua, Thunb.=Felicia.— A. Sikfintémia. Book. Three to 4 ft., stout and erect: lvs. lanceolate-acuminate. spinulose-serrate : heads purple, in large corymbs. Himalayas. B.1\I.4557.—A.Strdcheyi. Hook. Stem less and sarmentose, with 1-tid. bracted st-apes: radical lvs. spntulate, hairy: heads lilac-blue, 1 in. across. Pretty. Hima layas. B.M.0912.--‘A. tvrnu'1w‘zlia= i—A. Téwmhendii, Hook. -=A. Bigelovii, Gray (N. Amer.). L_ H’ B_ The native Asters are amongst the very host plants for borders and roadsides. They should be better known. A. acuminatus grows well in shade in ordinary soil, not necessarily moist; increases in vigor under cultivation. A. cordifnlius prefers open or partial shade ; improves much under cultivation with good soil. A . corymbosua prefers at least partial shade, and will grow even in very deep shade; seeds very freely; does well on dry ledges and in small crevices in rock; very tenacious of life. A. dummms prefers full sunlight and dry situation. A. cri coides wants full sunlight and dry situation ; will grow in very poor or shallow soil, but does best where roots can penetrate deep. A. Irevis grows in either full sun light or partial shade and good soil. A. 1Vor¢v-Angliue will not endure much shade; prefers moist soil, but grows well in ordinary garden situations. Fall-sown seedlings of A. lV0t'rr-Aw/litt, var. roxeus, come prac tically true to varietal name, though varying in shade of color, and these seedlings bloom later than older plants and at height of 18 inches, making the plant of value as a late bedding plant treated as an annual. A . Not-i-Belgii prefers moist soil; will not endure heavy shade. A. panicululus prefers moist soil, but will do well in rather dry situations; will endure more shade than either of the two above species. A. palms wants open or half-shaded places, and good soil; one of the weaker species, often proving short-lived. A . pmu'c¢'|t.t will not endure shade; prefers moist places, but will grow in good soil not over moist; in dry situations it loses its vigor; spreads rapidly in favored locations. A. spectabilis prefers open or partly shaded places; one of the weaker species in wild state ; rather short-lived. A. undulatus wants open or half shade ; late-flowering, handsome plant, forming large bushes where allowed to develop. A . rimineus, although not in the trade, is a fine plant in cultivation. F‘ w_ BARCLAL