Canada

The most important fruit re gions of Canada are those surrounded wholly or in part by bodies of salt or fresh water. In the extreme east the Atlantic ocean with its indentations, is the influencing climatic factor. in central Canada the great lakes, Ontario and Eric, serve the some useful oflce, while in the extreme west the Pacific ocean, with 341. Camptosorus I hisophyllus. 233 its gulf stream, tempers the climate of British Coloni bin, and gives suflicient atmospheric moisture. so that all but tropical and citrus fruits may be grown in the most favored localities. It is interesting to note that while on the eastern Atlantic coast apples are success fully grown as far north as the 47th parallel north lati tude, and in British Columbia as far north as the 52d degree north latitude, yet in the interior of Ontario and a CANADA uebec they have not succeeded north of the 46th par lel. The fruits of Canada of today are attributable to 5 main sources: 1. Seeds, brought by the first French missionaries and English colonists. 2. Seeds and plants obtained from Virginia and New England. 3. Plants and seeds brought in by United Empire Royalists. 4. Chance seedling production. 5. Recent importation from Europe, and systematic plant-breeding. In order to obtain an idea of the character of fruits cultivated in the Dominion, it will be necessary to con sider the provinces separately : Pamcs Eowano Is!.aa'o.-Latitude, 46 degrees to 47 degrees north, area about one and a quarter million acres. The surface is undulating, the whole island eminently agricultural and pastoral. Soil, a reddish loam, some times sandy and occasionally clayish. The climate is sumciently mild to admit of the cultivation of pears and of plums of the Prunus domesfica type. The winters are long and tedious, with heavy snowfalls, and frequent fogs and sleety rains. The first fruits introduced were apples, by French colonists. Later, the English and Scotch settlers brought other apples and pears, in addi tion to Kentish cherries. It is probable, also, that some of these early fruits were introduced by the Acadian French. We still find on the island a few of the old French orchards of apples and cherries. Cherries have been cultivated—in fact, they have taken care of them selves—with success since the time of their first intro duction. They belong to the Kentish type, and ripen in that locality in. mont-h later than do the same varieties grown in eastern Ontario. Black-knot has lately ap peared, but is being attended to. Apple-growing is on the increase. The better practices in fruit-growing are being introduced; a few large orchards are already established and are bearing satisfactorily. The climate has an important eflect upon the keeping properties of apples and pears. Such late-maturing varieties as Ben Davis, Stark, and Missouri Pippin do not, as a rule, at tain full size and perfection. The autumn and early winter apples of the west are the most suitable varie ties. Of these are Ribston, Blenheim Pippin, Hubbard ston and Grimes Golden. The same is true of are. The early and midseason varieties do best. lapp, Bartlett. .Howell, and Anjou are doing well. Among plums, Moore’s Arctic. Early Damson and Lombard are favorites. Peaches cannot be grown successfully unless artificially protected during winter. Small-fruits are grown successfully in all parts of the island. The most important of these is the cranberry. The area devoted to this fruit is extending rapidly. The product is shipped to England. There is undoubtedly a future for fruit-growing on this island, with its natural under-drainage in many parts, its equable climate, and its proximity to the European market. Nova SOOTIA up Can: Barron. -The Dominion owes very much to this province for the pioneer work done in advertising the fruit-growing capabilities of Canada in the European markets. The best advertise ment that could be given by any country was atforded by the m lilcent display of fruit made by the Province of Nova otia through its Fruit Growers’ Association at the Indian and Intercolonial exhibition in London in 1886. As early as the middle of the last century, the Acadian French, who then peopled Kings and Annapolis counties. cultivated apples and pears with t success. When these lands fell into the hands of onnecticut and Eng lish immigrants in 1760, old pear and apple trees were found in many places; some of the latter exist at the prcsent da '. t must not be supposed that the apple growing 0 Nova Scotia is restricted to the Annapolis valley. This valley is only one of several, and the con tiguous fertile valleys of the Cornwallis and Gaspereaux rivers are equall well adapted and equally productive. The protection orded in this. the best fruit section of