(Greek name of a climbing plant). Ranunculaceae. Climbing vines, or erect or ascending perennial herbs, more or less woody : lvs. opposite, slender petioled, pinnately compound, lobed, or in some species entire: sepals usually 4 or 5, sometimes more, valvate in the bud, petaloid; petals none (or small in Atragene section); stamens many; pistils many; akenes in a head, 1-seeded ; style persistent, long, plumose, silky or naked. About 150 species of very wide geographical distribution, most abundant in temperate regions. About 20 species found native in North America.—Les Clematites, Alphonse Lavallée, Paris, 1884; referred to below by "Lav."—The Clema tis as a Garden Flower, Thomas Moore and George Jackman, London, 1872 ; referred to below by "M. & J." —Clematises, Dr. Jules lo Bole, in Bull. de la Societe d'H0rt. do la Sarthe; republished in The Garden (vol. 53), June—Oct. 1898.-0. Kuntze, hionogr. der Gattung Clematis in Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 26 (1885).-A. Gray, Fl.N. Am. 1: 4-9, 1895.
A rich soil of a light, loumy character is the best for Clematises, and a little mixture of lime will make it better. The soil must be well drained, and must be kept rich by at least annual applications of horse- or cow-ma nure. On dry, hot soils cow-manure is best, while on
heavy soils a thorough dressing of rich leaf-mold would best serve the purpose. Mulching with half-rotted manure on the approach of winter tends to increase the strength of the plants and the size of the flowers.
In dry seasons, spraying is always helpful during the growing season. Clematises belonging to the Montana, Cerulea, Florida, and Lanuginosa types should be pruned in February or March, by cutting away all weak, straggling and over crowded branches. The first three mentioned flower from the ripened wood; it is essential, therefore, that in orderto secure blossoms, enough of the strong one year-old wood should be retained. Viticella, Jack mani and Lanuginosa should be vigorously cut back, say in November; they blossom from the new shoots. Those of the Czorulea type should be pruned very little, soon after the flowers have disappeared, by simply trim ming of! useless branches and seed-bearing peduncles. Clematises of the vigorous climbing varieties are used in many places to cover walls, root fences, mounds, arbors, balconies, trellises, small buildings, and, in fact, many other places the ingenious gardener will think of. For pot culture in the greenhouse, and for conservatory walls, the less vigorous species are best suited. All the many varieties and hybrids of the Czerulea and Lann ginosa types, including Henryi and the forms of Jack mani, are well adapted to this use,as well as for out door purposes. The dwarfer and more bushy species are used in greenhouses to some extent, but are found principally in borders or on large rockeries. Of the latter J. B. Keller says: “Their flowers are not so large as we see them in most of the climbers, yet they are indispensable in the flower garden, being prolific bloomers and free growers in ordinarily rich, deep gar den soil. There is room for improvement in this class, however, and specialists who hitherto have done so
much for the climbers, ought to direct their efforts now to the long-neglected bush Clematises. A noble beginning has been made, resulting in the large-flowering. C. integrifolia, var. Durandi, but we expect more of them in the future." See special notes on culture and h brid-forming qualities after the descriptions of some of the species and varieties. The most common method of propagation is by grafting. Roots of C. Flammula or C. Vilicella are used; the cions are taken from plants that have been grown under glass, and are used before the wood is entirely ripe. Cions taken from plants grown in the garden in summer are rarely successful. The grafts, in pots or trays, are grown in a moist coolhouse, over gentle bot tom heat. Another method of propagation, involving
less labor but usually successful, is to take cuttings of nearly ripe wood, grown under glass, and treat them as the cions first above mentioned, without the roots. The latter method is practiced preferably in summer in