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Cranberry

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Cranberry
A name applied to trailing species of the genus Vaccinium (Ericdcerz). Of the true Cranberries there are two species in North America,-the small (Vaccinium Orycoccus), and the large (V. mac1-ocar part). These are native to swamps, where they trail their slender stems and little oval evergreen leaves over the sphagnum and boggy turf. The red, firm berries ripen late in fall and often persist on the vines until spring. when well protected with snow. Each berry is borne on a slender pedicel, and the curve of this pedicel in the European species is said to have suggested the name Cranberry. which is now shortened to Cran
berry.
The large Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocavpon, is now cultivated on hundreds of acres in the United States; and this Cranberry culture is one of the most special and interesting of all pomological pursuits. This Cranberry grows only in North America; and North America is the only country which has a domestic or cultivated Cranberry. Because Cranberry-growing is such an unusual type of horticulture, it is thought advisable to devote considerable space to it in this Cyclopedia. Cranberries may be grown on land both low and high; but it is the general experience that low, boggy lands are the only ones which give permanently good results. In the winter, the natural Cranberry bogs are usually flooded, and in summer they are free of standing water. The flowers are often caught by the late frosts of spring, and the fruit may be injured by the early frosts of fall. Bogs are often ruined by fire in times of drought. In sects and fungi often play havoc with the crop.
The ideal bog for Cranberry culture is t e one in which the natural environments of the plant are most nearly imitated. and in which the grower can have the greatest control over the difiiculties mentioned above. it should have the following qualifications : (1) Capa bility of being drained of all surface water, so that free water does not stand higher than one foot below the surface in the growing season. (2) Soil which retains moisture through the summer, for Cranberries suffer greatly in drought. (3) Suflicient water supply to en able it to be flooded. (4) A fairly level or even surface, so that the flooding will be of approximately uniform depth over the entire area. (5) Not over-liable to frosts. Bogs which contain moss or sphagnum and which have a peaty or mucky soil are usually chosen. If heath-like shrubs grow naturally in the bog, the indications are all the better. The presence of the Cassandra or Leather leaf is regarded as a good augury. Black ash, red maple, swamp huckleberry , and white cedar swamps are often very satisfactory. ld mill-ponds often give good results. Before the Cranberries are planted, the bog must be cleaned of trees, bushes, moss and roots. This may be done by “turflng,” which is the digging out of the $68. The cranberry-picking scene on a Cape Cod bog. In the upper corner is a hog in full flood is the flume or outlet dam.
Swamp growth, or by "drowning," which is (l\'(-lily flooding the place for a year. The method of preparing the surface for receiving the plants varies in different regions. Open ditches are run through the place in sufficient number to c 01! The surface water. They are usually made 2 to 4 feet deep. If some water stands in them during the summer, better results are expected.
These ditches usually feed into one main or central ditch; and this main ditch is preferably the one which, when dammed at its lower end, floods the bog by back ing up the water. Growers prefer, if possible, to divert a living brook through the bog, or to straighten and deepen one which may exist there; but in the absence of a brook, a reservoir may be constructed above the bog.
Sufficient water supply should be had to cover the entire area from December until April or early May, to a depth of at least one foot. The lower places will have a deeper covering, but 4 or 5 feet in places usually does not harm in the winter. It 569. Cranberry hand-picker.  flood in spring or fall, to kill insects or to protect from frosts. T e objects of flooding are as follows: (1) to protect the plants from heaving in winter; (2) to avoid late spring and early fall frosts ; (3) to drown insects; (4) to protect from drought; (5) to guard against fire. Unless serious contingencies arise, the bog is flooded only in winter. Good results are obtained now and then in

"dry" or upland bogs, which cannot be flooded; but such bogs or meadows rarely give uniform results, and they are less advised than formerly. There are three centers of Cranberry growing in North America,—Cape Cod peninsula, New Jersey, Wisconsin. Each has methods peculiar to itself. It was in the Cape Cod region that Cranberry culture began. The first at tempts were made early in this century. William Kenrick, writing in 1832 in this "Orchardist," says that "Capt. Henry Hall, of Barnstable, has cultivated the Cranberry twenty years;" "Mr. F. A. Hayden, of Lincoln, Mass., is stated to have gathered from his farm in 1830, 400 bushels of Cranberries, which brought him in Boston market $600." In the second and subsequent editions, Kenricks makes the figure $400. It is not said whether Mr. Hayden's berries were wild or cultivated.

At the present day, with all the increase in production, prices are higher than those received by Mr. Hayden. In the third (1841) and subsequent editions, it is said that"an acre of Cranberries in full bearing will produce over 200 bushels; and the fruit generally sells, in the markets of Boston, for $1.50 per bushel, and much higher than in former years." It was as late as 1850, however, That Cranberry culture gained much prominence. It was in 1856 that the first treatise appeared : B. Eastwood's "Complete Manual for the Cultivation of the Cranberry."

About 1845, Cranberry culture began to establish itself in New Jersey. In the Cape Cod region, the bogs are "turfed." The surface covering is cut into small squares and hauled off. The object is to obtain a uniform surface in order that all plants may have equal opportunity. The bog is then "sanded." Rather coarse, clean sand is spread over the entire area to the depth of about4 inches. In this covering, the vines are planted. The sand keeps down weeds and thereby lessons subsequent labor; it aflords a moisture-holding mulch for the muck; it renders the plantation easier to be worked in wet weather, and it prevents the too vigorous growth of the vine. Every four of five years a fresh sanding, to the depth of an inch or less, is given. This keeps the vines short and close.

Formerly, whole roots or “sods” of Cranberry were used for planting, but now cuttings are employed. These cut tings are 6- or 8-inch pieces of vigorous runners, with the leaves on. They are thrust obliquely through the
sand, only an inch or two of the top remaining un
covered. They are set about 14 inches apart each way.
In three or four years a full crop is obtained. The bogs
are kept clean by means of hand weeding. At Cape God,
it is estimated that the sum of $300 to $500 per acre is
required to tit and plant a hog. A good yield from a
bog in full bearing is 50 barrels to the acre; but 200
barrels have been grown. In New Jersey, the general tendency is to omit the sanding. The bogs are not cleared so carefully. The plants are often set directly in the earth bottom, after the heavy turf is removed. The b0gs—or meadows, as they are usually called—are not kept so scrupu
lously clean. It is thought that a reasonable quantity of grass prevents
scalding of the berries. If the vines become too deep, they are mown or burned in order to secure a fresh growth from the roots. The gathering of the crop is done preferably by hand-picking, particularly in plantations which are well cared for. In some cases the berries are raked of! with a steel garden rake, but many of them are lost and bruised, and the vines may be injured. It
is said by some that the tearing out of the old and
large vines in the raking tends to renew the plants,
and this is undoubtedly true; but there are better
ways of keeping the vines young and short, as by
sanding or mowing. In the East, raking is now
rarely employed, unless the crop is very poor or
prices very low; or unless hard frost is expected,
in which case the berries may be raked, the bog
flooded, and the berries caught at the flume. Some
times the bog is flooded when hard frost is threatened
and the water is allowed to remain all winter, and
the berries are harvested in the spring; but such
early flooding may injure the vines. The price paid
for the picking 0! Cranberries is usually about 40 to
50 ct-s. a bushel. Three to four bushels is considered to
be an average day’s picking. There are various devices
to facilitate the picking. On Cape Cod a popular im
plement is the Lambert picker (Fig. 569). The machine
is thrust into the vines, and the operater closes the lid
by bearing down with his thumb; drawing it backward
pulls oi! the berries. Usually the pickers are"1ined-off"
(Fig. 568) by cords stretched across the bog, thus limiting
each one to a particular area, which he is required to
pick clean. The berries are cleaned by running them
through a separator, by passing them over a screen,
by floating oil the litter by dowsing them in water, and
by other means. Dowsing usually reduces the market
value. They are then marketed in barrels or crates.
02 varieties there are three general types, determined

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